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Legal Definitions – P (Page 2)

Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act (PPACA) – Federal law that is designed to provide health insurance to all Americans and to decrease healthcare costs. It is frequently referred to as Obamacare.

Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) – A federal law pertaining to hospitals, home health agencies, nursing homes, and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs).

Patriot Act – A federal law that gives the Executive Branch broad powers to investigate possible criminal activity that is related to terrorism.

Pay Day Requirements – Legal requirements related to how often an employee is to be paid.

Payable on Death Account – A bank account accompanied with instructions to the bank to transfer the account to a specific person after the death of the account holder.

Pedestrian Rights And Duties – The rights and duties of anyone who is on foot out in public. These rights and duties vary according to the laws of different municipalities.

Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) – A corporation that seeks to protect employees’ pensions associated with defined benefit plans by stepping in to pay a certain amount if the pension plan can’t pay the promised pension. This corporation was created by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA).

Pension Protection Act (PPA) of 2006 – Federal law that created a special insurance system for certain business that offer private pension and benefits plans.

Pepper Spray – A compound that produces tears and pain in the eyes. It is used both by police and by individuals for the purpose of self defense.

Percentage Lease – A lease where rent payments are based on the leaseholder’s sales or profits.

Performance and Payment Bond – Types of bonds that are intended to protect the owner in a construction project from contractor failure.

Perjury – The crime of lying after giving an oath or affirmation promising to tell the truth to a notary public, court clerk, or other official.

PERM Labor Certification – An entirely electronic process to file for permanent labor certification with the United States Department of Labor (US DOL). Labor certification is the major way to get a “green card,” or a permanent resident visa, through employment.

Permanent Guardianship – A relationship between a minor child and a guardian (i.e. an adult caretaker), where the guardian has a legal duty to take care of the child.

Permanent Injunction – A final court order that a party ceases certain activities permanently or performs certain acts.

Permanent Residence – A status that aliens may obtain after immigrating to the U.S. It is one step in the citizenship process.

Person In Need of Supervision (PINS) Petition – A petition that is filed to ask a court to order treatment or supervision of a child who has a history of behaving inappropriately.

Personal Crimes – Crimes committed against a person. See also: DUI Vehicular Homicide, Same Sex Rape, Verbal Threats as Assault

Personal Exemption for Taxpayers – A statutorily determined exemption ($3100 as of 2004) that all taxpayers may make on their tax return from their gross income.

Personal Gift in a Will – Property that is distributed from one person to another through the use of a valid will document.

Personal Injury – An injury to the body, mind, or emotions of a person. See also: Personal Injury Elements, Personal Injury Claims, How to File Suit for Personal Injury Damages

Personal Promissory Note – A document that contains the terms of a loan to family or friends.

Personal Property Contracts – Contracts that are used to govern a sale of goods.

Personal Residence Trusts – A type of estate planning tool where in a property owner transfers the ownership of their residence to an irrevocable trust.

Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996 – Federal law that is designed to encourage welfare recipients to find work, and to reward states for helping welfare recipients find work.

Personal Tax Credits – Reductions in federal and state taxes that are available to those who qualify for them.

Personal Work Records – Documents that are maintained by an employer for an individual employee.

Pesticide – A name given to a broad category of chemicals that kill rodents, weeds, insects, bacteria and algae.

Pet Custody – The issues that arise when more than one person claims ownership of a dog, cat or other small animal, which leads to a conflict in custody rights. This type of custody is not comparable to child custody.

Pet Insurance – Insurance that provides coverage for medical expenses for domestic pets.

Petition for Divorce – The document that generally begins the divorce process.

Petty Theft – A type of theft crime that is based on the low value of the stolen property.

Pharming – A specific type of identity theft crime that involves websites and Internet fraud.

Phishing – A scam by which an unsuspecting victim voluntarily gives some type of personal or financial information to what they think is an official institution the victim already has some type of connection with.

Physical Presence Test – A test used to see if a person is eligible for foreign income tax exclusions up to $80,000. A person meets this test if they are physically present in a foreign country or countries 330 full days during a period of 12 consecutive months.

Plastic Surgery Malpractice – Medical malpractice committed by a doctor during a plastic surgery procedure.

Playground Injury – A personal injury sustained on a playground, normally by a child who is injured by playground equipment.

Plea Bargain – An agreement in a criminal case between the prosecution and the defense in which the prosecution offers to drop or reduce some charges, or to recommend a certain sentence to the judge in exchange for a plea of guilty or no contest from the defendant.

Poaching – The illegal killing of wildlife, which is generally considered a criminal misdemeanor.

Police Canine Sniffs During Traffic Stops – Canine sniff tests executed at routine traffic stops enacted by the police. A canine sniff test is where the police use a trained police dog to sniff for evidence of a crime.

Police Custody – A situation where the suspect submits to the authority of a police officer.

Police House Search – A search that occurs when the police enter a person’s residence and search for evidence of a crime.

Police Liability for Damages – The liability for damages that police face when they have failed to perform their duties, performed their duties negligently, abused their power, or used excessive force.

Police Lineup Identification – An identification where an eyewitness identifies a suspect out of a group of five or six other people who fit the suspect’s descriptions (“decoys”).

Police Misconduct – Misconduct where an officer has violated someone’s constitutional rights.

Police Questioning After an Arrest – Questioning that the police enact against a suspect after the suspect has been arrested.

Police Questioning Before an Arrest – Questioning that the police enact with a person without having arrested that person first.

Police Station-House Detentions – The holding of a suspect at a police station for the purpose of investigating their possible participation in a crime.

Political Asylum – Asylum provided to refugees, especially political refugees, from another nation.

Political Refugee – Any person who is unwilling or unable to stay in the country of their nationality due to political persecution.

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Last Modified: 04-7-2022 06:35 AM UTC