A permanent resident alien is any person who is not a citizen of the United States that is living in the United States under a recognized and valid immigration visa that grants them permanent resident status to work and live in the United States indefinitely.
Generally, proof of such permanent residency status is evidenced by the possession of a permanent resident card, also known as a green card. Permanent resident status may also refer to immigrants who have entered the country under a conditional residency status, and have had their status adjusted to that of permanent resident.
Lawful permanent residents may also be referred to as a “resident alien permit holder,” “green card holder,” or “permanent resident alien.”
As a permanent resident, you receive many abilities and privileges inherently granted to United States citizens. As discussed further below, a permanent resident alien may work at any job legally in the United States, own property, and do not have to return to their home countries.
Further, as long as your green card remains valid, as a permanent resident you may travel to and from your home country anytime. Finally, permanent residence status may lead to the opportunity to apply for U.S. citizenship.
Unfortunately, you are not allowed to simply request a permanent residency card for just any reason. Permanent residency status requires first filing an immigration petition with the United States Immigration Services and meeting other eligibility requirements to apply to be a permanent resident. There are different types of residencies, and the following are some examples of ways to obtain permanent residency status:
- Family Member Based Permanent Residency: Family members of U.S. citizens or family members of permanent residents may be able to apply for permanent residence status because of their relationship with them.
- The Immigration & Nationality Act and the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) allows spouses, parents, and unmarried children (younger than 21 years old and unmarried) of United States citizens to apply for permanent residency status;
- Employment-based Permanent Residency: Individuals who are hired for qualified positions or wish to start business ventures in the United States may after some time be eligible for a green card and granted permanent residency status. Further, in special cases, such as with professional athletes from foreign countries, immigrants may be able to obtain permission to permanently work and reside in the United States;
- Fiancé(e) Visa: A fiancé(e) of a citizen or permanent resident is usually granted conditional resident status when entering the United States. After some time, they can apply to have the conditions removed to obtain permanent status by filing “Form I-129F, Petition For Alien Fiancé(e)” and intending to marry one another within 90 days of entering the United States;
- Individuals Seeking Asylum and Refugees: Persons filing for permanent residency status under this category usually can apply for permanent residency after one year.
- These persons are usually fleeing persecution or dangerous situations in their home country, and, thus, will be designated as refugees or asylees. The process of obtaining permanent residency status for refugees and asylees is different than for other groups, thus an experienced immigration attorney should be consulted in these matters; or
- Diversity Visa Lottery: The diversity visa lottery program allows immigrants to travel to the United States and later apply for permanent residency status.
As noted above, as a permanent resident you have similar rights that those born in the United States inherently have, such as the right to:
- Live permanently anywhere in the United States. As long as your permanent status is not lost by abandonment or removal, also known as deportation;
- Legally work in the United States, although some jobs are limited to natural-born United States citizens;
- Own property;
- Apply for a driver’s license in your state;
- Attend public schools and colleges;
- Purchase or own a firearm, so long as there are not local laws that say you cannot own a firearm;
- Travel to and from the United States; and
- It is important to note that leaving the United States for an extended period of time or moving to another country with an intent to live there permanently will likely result in abandonment of your permanent residency status.
- You are afforded all of the protections of the laws of the United States.
As can be seen, obtaining permanent residency is a complicated process that requires a significant amount of documentation and sometimes confusing and lengthy waiting periods.
If you wish to pursue permanent residency in the United States or have been denied a green card, you should consult an experienced and well-qualified immigration attorney who can assist you through the process.
Further, an experienced immigration attorney will be able to assist you with all of your applications and make sure you do not miss any important requirements or deadlines.