Legal Definitions – S
Safe Haven Law – A law that permits a person to legally surrender an unharmed, newborn baby at locations specifically designated by law. Examples are hospitals, police stations, and adoption agencies.
Safe Medical Devices Act – A federal law that requires health care facilities to report to the manufacturers any injuries or illnesses affecting patients or employees that was caused by the use of the manufacturers’ medical devices.
Safety Standards in the Workplace – Standards set out under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) that every workplace must meet in order to be deemed safe.
Sale of Goods Agreement – An agreement where the contracting parties, one buyer and one seller, agree to exchange ownership of goods for money.
Sale of Property During a Lease – The act of selling a leased property while the tenant still occupies and is leasing the property.
Sale of Remainder Interest – The sale of the interest in property to another party who will take possession after the seller’s death. this takes place while the seller is still alive and in possession of said property.
Sale of Tobacco to Minors – The illegal act of selling tobacco products, such as cigarettes or chewing tobacco, to people who are legally too young to buy tobacco products.
Sales Tax – A tax on the sale of tangible personal property or taxable service.
Same Sex Rape – Rape enated by a person against someone of the same gender, such as a man raping another man.
Same-Sex Harassment in Employment – Sexual harassment enacted by one person against someone of the same gender in the workplace.
Sanctuary Cities – A generalization used to describe the cities that do not use city funding to implement federal immigration laws. In these "cities," local law enforcement does not actively inquire about the immigration status of individuals within the city.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 – Federal law that governs the maintenance of financial records and provides regulations on behavior by executives and upper management. It was implemented to protect stockholders and the general public from accounting errors and fraudulent practices in the financial world.
Satellite Theft – The act of illegally receiving satellite signals through the use of black market signal receivers or the use and sale of pirated access cards for use in satellite boxes from companies such as DIRECTV.
SBA 8(a) for Minority-Owned Businesses – A federal program that provides "sole source" (only one company can provide services and bid) and reduced competition government contracts in addition to business development resources for minority-owned businesses in an effort to help these businesses to grow.
Scholarship Scam – A scam involving fraud concerning scholarships for school and education. These are prohibited under federal law by the the College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act, which established stronger sentencing guidelines for such fraud.
School Bullying – Repeated instances of harassment, intimidation, violence, or threats of violence from one student or a group of students to another at school.
School Discipline – Discipline enacted by school officials against a student to punish or deter bad behavior.
School’s Failure to Supervise Students – A school’s breach of its duty to exercise reasonable supervisory care to ensure the safety of students.
Scope of an Agent’s Authority – The extent of which an agent can act on behalf of a principal. The scope of authority may include express authority, implied authority, and apparent authority.
Scope of Release Clause – The extent of which a person has agreed to relinquish their right to sue under a release clause, such as whether they are giving up general or specific rights.
Servicemember’s Civil Relief Act of 2003 (SCRA) – Federal law that provides for the temporary suspension of judicial and administrative proceedings and transactions, such as bankruptcy and eviction, that may adversely affect a military service member while they are on active duty.
Sealing of Juvenile Records – The act of a court sealing or destroying a person’s juvenile criminal records, thereby making the records no longer accessible as public records.
Seaman’s Injuries or Jones Act – A federal law that provides remedies to seamen who are injured while working on a vessel. The act also makes provisions for the families of seamen killed in the performance of their duties.