Public nudity laws and public sex acts laws prohibit public nudity. Nudity laws make it illegal to walk around in public without clothes.
The lack of clothes is illegal if they are “lewd” or designed “to arouse sexual gratification.” If a defendant is naked in a public place, it is only illegal if the defendant wants people to be attracted to them.
The nudity and public decency laws in the United States differ from state to state. While most states prohibit showing genitals or female nipples in public places, other states allow simple nudity. Still, evidence of an intent to shock, arouse or offend other persons (lewd conduct) is evidence of prohibited conduct. It is a criminal offense punishable by fines or imprisonment in most states, along with requirements and restrictions associated with registered sex offenders.
Some states allow local governments to set local standards. For instance, public nudity itself is not a crime in California since a 2000 Appellate Court ruling, and prosecutions and convictions are extremely rare. Arrests do still occur, though they are rare as well, and Vermont only prohibits “open and gross lewdness and lascivious behavior,” which means that various forms of public nudity are legal.
In the United States Armed Forces, indecent exposure is defined as a crime by Article 120c, Uniform Code of Military Justice. In the 2012 edition, changes to Article 120c were incorporated into the Manual for Courts-Martial.
In Texas, a law enacted in 2021 extended indecent exposure to online activity, which is the act of sending unsolicited nude or sexual images to another person. Despite this, the law classified the offense as a lesser misdemeanor than in-person exposure.
The incidence of public nudity has increased in recent years. There are some instances in which this is innocent fun, such as ritual moonings in Orange County, California, and naked bike riding events worldwide.
Other times, it may be less innocent, such as those who expose themselves for sexual gratification against the will of others.
Of course, things like the infamous Girls Gone Wild videos or the public flashing at events like Mardi Gras, concerts, and motorcycle events are somewhere in the middle.
What Is Considered a “Public” Place?
The law generally prohibits nudity in public places in the United States. Nudity is also generally illegal on a person’s own property if the nude person is visible to the public, such as through an open window or sunbathing naked in the yard. While the majority of state laws are clear about nudity around children and nudity meant to arouse, other laws are vague, and violations are often a matter of community standards for indecency.
There may be instances in which these laws are in conflict with constitutional protections for freedom of expression, especially if the nudity is part of an artistic performance or political demonstration.
A “public” place is generally defined as any location that is visited by the public, likely to be visited by the public, or where the public can be expected to visit or observe. This includes streets, sidewalks, and businesses. “Public” places include private businesses, such as restaurants or bars, and private events, such as music festivals.
“Public” places usually do not include restrooms, doctors’ offices, or other places where privacy may be expected.
Do I Have To Be Completely Nude To Violate Nudity Laws?
No. Partial nakedness or displaying any sexual body parts is illegal under many nudity laws. This includes the exposure of breasts, vaginas, penises, and buttocks.
What If I Refuse to Wear Clothes as a Political Statement?
Nudity is not protected under federal law, except to the extent that it might be protected under the First Amendment right to freedom of expression. Local laws will take precedence if there is a question of nudity on federal lands, such as federal parks, beaches, and other facilities.
Some states allow or simply tolerate nudity on public lands. It is also possible to engage in nudity at private facilities in almost every state, with the usual requirement simply that the nudity cannot be observed from outside.
New York, Hawaii, Maine, Ohio, and Texas laws allow women to go topless in any location where men can do so legally.
Nudity laws are generally enforceable, but courts are less likely to enforce them when nudity is intended to make a political statement. Political speech is one of the most protected types of speech, and certain actions can be considered political speech. Therefore, if a defendant undresses to make a point, the nudist can argue that their nudity is political speech and protected by the First Amendment.
Examples of nudity as political speech include stripping to protest TSA rules and GoTopless Day.
Exemption for Breastfeeding Infants
Breastfeeding mothers are generally exempt from prosecution under these statutes. U.S. Section 647 of Public Law 106–58, enacted in 1999, specifically states that “a woman may breastfeed her child at any place in a Federal building or on Federal property if the woman and her child are otherwise authorized to be present at the place.”
Interested in Celebrating National Nude Day (Legally) in a U.S. City or State?
National Nude Day is not an official holiday, but it makes a good excuse for a day of skinny dipping or lying naked in bed. Nudism, which revolves around the philosophy of naturalism, has been practiced for thousands of years.
The holiday is about enjoying your body, escaping from the pressures of wearing clothes all the time, and celebrating nudity and nakedness. Public nakedness is, of course, legal only in certain places or under certain circumstances in the United States. Nudity laws have changed over time, but in most places, there are only laws regarding indecent exposure of specific body parts.
As long as you aren’t making anyone uncomfortable, Seattle allows people to be nude anywhere and anytime. In the 1990s, the Seattle v. Johnson case made it legal for people to relax at beaches or parks without clothing.
As it turns out, Oregon is pretty lenient regarding nudity. There are dozens of nude spas and clubs you can visit. There are even many hot springs where you can unwind.
It is surprising that Austin is one of the most topless-friendly cities in the United States, where there are no laws prohibiting public nudity. Hippie Hollow is Texas’s clothing-optional park on Lake Travis, covering 100 acres.
New York, NY
New York is one of the only places where anyone of any gender can go topless in public without it being considered indecent exposure. There is still a legal ban on exposing genitals.
Nakedness is technically allowed in Philadelphia as long as you’re not being “lewd.”
There are many Florida beaches where you can go barefoot for some sun, such as Miami’s Haulover Beach, where clothing is optional. One exception (though there is no legal precedent) is Bunche Beach Preserve in San Carlos Bay of Fort Myers.
Do I Need a Lawyer?
Suppose you or a family member is accused of violating a public nudity law. In that case, you should contact a criminal defense lawyer immediately to learn more about your rights, your defenses, and the complicated legal system. You can also hire a lawyer near you to represent you in any legal proceedings arising from your public nudity.