Law Library Legal Dictionary – P (Page 4)
Legal Definitions – P (Page 4)
Privacy Act – Federal law that ensures an individual’s private records are not used by the federal government to collect information for which it has no legal use.
Privacy in the Workplace – An employee’s right to expect a certain degree of confidentiality and privacy with regards to their space, belongings, and information.
Private Agency Tax Debt Collection – Collection of tax debt that is assigned to a private agency by the IRS. The debt will end up being substantially more than the original amount because additional fees are added to cover the costs incurred by the IRS to collect the tax debt.
Private Investigation – The practice of private (non-government, typically for-profit) individuals or businesses conducting covert information-gathering on behalf of a paying client.
Private Necessity – A defense against trespass in which a defendant interferes with a plaintiff’s property in an emergency to protect a personal interest. However, the defendant will still be liable for any damages the plaintiff incurs.
Privileged Communication – A communication between two parties who cannot be compelled by the court to disclose the contents of said communication.
Probable Cause Hearing – A pre-trial hearing during which the judge will determine whether probable cause existed, usually in relation to an arrest or a search for evidence.
Probate Bond – A bond posted by the executor of an estate that ensures the executor will fulfill their duties according to the state probate and estate laws.
Probate Process – A formal process that determines how the assets of a deceased person are handled.
Product Failure Injuries – Injuries resulting from instances where the product or a part of the product breaks, ruptures, or collapses.
Product Liability – The area of law that attempts to recover loss or injury caused by a defective product.
Product Safety Laws – Laws are designed to regulate the designing, manufacturing, distribution, sale, and resale of products in order to keep consumers safe from dangerous products.
Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 – A federal statute that prohibits any state or person acting pursuant to the law of a state government agency from sponsoring, operating, promoting, or authorizing any gambling scheme based on games played by amateur or professional athletes.
Professional Corporation – A distinct type of corporate business structure that is comprised of members who belong to designated professions and who desire to incorporate their business activities with other members of the same profession.
Profit Sharing Plan – A form of compensation that companies pay to their employees. It operates as an incentive plan wherein a portion of the company’s profits are paid to its employees, usually on an annual basis.
Property Boundary Lines – The imaginary borders of a piece of land related to land, water, air, and sub-surface that are usually found in the land survey.
Prostitution – The sale of sexual services.
Protected Class – A characteristic of a person that cannot be targeted for discrimination, such as race, gender, age, and sexual orientation in some states.
Protecting a Home by Force – A legal right that a homeowner possesses to use force to protect his home from intruders.
Proxy Statement – A statement sent by a publicly traded corporation that contains valuable information for investors and allows shareholders to vote in board of directors’ elections as well as other corporate business matters.
Public Domain – The state of a creative work belonging to the public as a whole so that it is not subject to copyright.
Public Drunkenness – The crime of being intoxicated in a public place, even if one is of the legal drinking age.
Public Easements – The right to use private property that is possessed by the general public, such as the right to use sidewalks.
Public Nuisance – An unreasonable interference with the health, safety, peace, or comfort of the general public.
Public Offering – An offering of corporate securities, usually in the form of stock shares, to the public for purchase.
Public Policy – The social and legal guidelines that act as a community’s “common sense.”
Public Safety Crimes – Crimes that affect the safety of the general public rather than a specific person.
Public Transit Violation – The crime of riding a form of public transportation, such as a bus or a train, without paying the full fare.
Public Utility – An organization that provides electric, gas, water or telephone service to customers in a specified area.
Puffery – An exaggerated or extravagant statement made for the purpose of attracting buyers to a particular product or service. It is not illegal without further misconduct because most courts consider such a statement to be so immaterial and unreliable that it cannot form the basis for liability.
Punitive Damages – Damages that have the two-fold purpose of punishing defendants for their actions and deterring them from committing the acts again in the future. This type of damages is difficult to obtain and is not usually awarded in suits involving contract disputes.
Purchase and Sale Agreement – A legally binding contract that creates obligations and rights for sellers and buyers.
Purchase Money Trust – A trust that is created when a person purchases property, but instructs the seller to transfer the property or title to a different person.
Purchase Order – A document that a buyer of goods provides to a seller of goods outlining the terms of the sale, as well as the terms and conditions of the business relationship between the parties.
Putative Marriage – A legally invalid marriage that was initially believed to be valid by at least one spouse at the time that they entered into the marriage in good faith. The punitive spouse may be entitled to damages in a civil lawsuit.