Subpoena Duces Tecum or Subpoena To Produce Documents

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 If I Have Been Subpoenaed to Produce Documents, Do I Have to Do So?

Yes, a subpoena is a legal command that requires you to produce documents or testify in a legal proceeding. Ignoring or refusing to comply with a subpoena can lead to consequences, such as being held in contempt of court. However, there are certain situations where compliance may not be required, or the scope of the request can be narrowed.

What Documents Do I Bring?

When you’re served with a subpoena, examining the specific details of the documents requested closely is crucial. Here’s a more detailed breakdown of how you might gather some common document types.


You may need to sift through your email accounts to locate the relevant correspondences. If you use an email client, there are often search functionalities that can help you locate specific emails using keywords or dates. Ensure you print them out with relevant headers or save them in a commonly accessible digital format.


Physical letters should be stored safely, often in files or folders. If you’ve received relevant letters at a business address, consult with the appropriate department or individual who maintains records. Photocopy the original letters and store the originals in a safe place.


These can be in digital or physical formats. If it’s a business contract, it might be stored in a specific department like legal or administration. A personal contract, such as a lease, might be stored in your personal files.


If you have digital photos, they could be on your phone, computer, or a cloud storage service. Print them with clear quality, or save them on a USB drive if requested. Physical photographs can be photocopied or scanned and saved digitally.

Other Documents or Records

Depending on what’s requested, this might include bank statements, receipts, or any other record. For digital records, ensure they’re saved in a widely acceptable format. For physical records, make copies, and be sure to keep the originals safe.

It’s important to remember that the subpoena will dictate the time frame for which you should provide documents. For example, if it asks for emails from January 2020 to December 2020, ensure you only provide emails from within that period.

Additionally, as you gather these documents, create a comprehensive list or log of your services. This can serve as a record for you and be useful if there’s a question about what was submitted in response to the subpoena.

Lastly, while it’s crucial to be thorough in response to the subpoena, also be cautious not to overshare. Provide what’s requested. If you have concerns about the sensitivity or relevance of certain documents, consult with an attorney before handing them over.

What If the Documents Are Confidential?

Specific legal privileges, such as attorney-client and doctor-patient, protect certain confidential communications from being disclosed.

Additionally, trade secrets or other proprietary business information might be protected. If you believe that a document or piece of information you’ve been asked to produce is confidential, you should consult with an attorney to determine whether it can be withheld or if certain protections can be put in place before disclosure.

Several factors and examples can help determine if a document is considered confidential.

Legal Privilege

  • Attorney-Client Privilege: Communications between clients and their attorney, made while seeking or providing legal advice, are typically considered confidential. This means that notes, memos, and correspondences between you and your lawyer, which are meant to be private, are generally protected from disclosure.
  • Doctor-Patient Privilege: Medical records, communications, and other documents relating to a patient’s health and treatment are typically confidential due to the doctor-patient privilege. The objective is to ensure that patients can be open with their doctors without fearing that their information will be disclosed.

Statutory or Regulatory Protections

Financial and tax records might be deemed confidential under specific laws, especially if their disclosure might compromise personal privacy or lead to identity theft.

Personal data is often treated as confidential, especially in the era of increased data protection regulations.

Trade Secrets or Business Confidential Information

Proprietary business information that offers a competitive advantage, such as manufacturing processes, client lists, marketing strategies, and research and development findings, can be considered trade secrets. Their disclosure could harm the business, making them confidential.

Express Confidentiality Agreements

Parties in various transactions might sign Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) or confidentiality agreements. If a document falls under the scope of such an agreement, it’s deemed confidential by contract.

Personal and Intimate Information

Certain personal documents or communications, like diaries or personal letters, can be considered confidential due to their intimate nature.

Educational Records

In the U.S., the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) protects the confidentiality of student education records.

What If the Documents Are Irrelevant?

If you believe the documents you’ve been asked to produce are irrelevant to the case, you can object to the subpoena.

Before taking any steps, carefully read the entire subpoena to understand the scope of the requested documents and the deadline for production or appearance.

If you’re unsure about the relevance of the requested documents, it’s a good idea to seek legal advice. An attorney can provide insight into whether your perception of irrelevance holds legal merit.

Prepare a letter to the attorney or party who issued the subpoena explaining your concerns about the relevance of the requested documents. This letter should specify which parts of the subpoena you find objectionable and the reasons for your objections.

If the party that issued the subpoena insists on producing the documents, you may need to file a motion to quash or modify the subpoena with the court. This motion formally asks the court to invalidate or alter the subpoena.

In the motion, lay out your arguments for why the requested documents are irrelevant to the case.

Be sure to file the motion before the deadline stated in the subpoena for producing the documents or appearing in court.

After the motion is filed, the court might schedule a hearing where both sides can present their arguments. The judge will decide whether to uphold, quash, or modify the subpoena after the hearing.

Until the court decides, you should refrain from destroying or altering any requested documents, which could result in legal penalties.

If the court rules in favor of the issuing party and upholds the subpoena, you must comply and produce the requested documents.

If you still believe the decision was incorrect, discuss the possibility of an appeal with your attorney.

What If I Need More Time to Gather the Documents?

If you need more time to gather the requested documents, you can contact the party that issued the subpoena and request an extension. If they don’t agree, you can file a motion with the court to seek additional time, explaining the reasons for your request.

Do I Have to Testify, Too?

A subpoena can command you to produce documents, testify, or both. If the subpoena specifies that you must also testify, you must appear in court or another specified location on the indicated date and time.

Will I Be Reimbursed for My Costs of Producing the Documents?

In some jurisdictions, you may be entitled to compensation for the reasonable costs of producing the documents, especially if the process is burdensome. This is not always the case, so it’s important to review the subpoena’s terms and local rules or consult with an attorney.

What If an Attorney Is Seeking Documents, But I Have Not Received a Subpoena?

If an attorney requests documents without a formal subpoena, you’re generally not legally obligated to provide them. However, cooperating might be in your best interest, especially if you anticipate receiving a subpoena. It’s wise to consult with your own attorney to determine the best course of action.

Do I Need an Attorney?

If you have concerns or questions about a subpoena, it’s advisable to consult with an attorney. They can guide how to respond, raise objections if necessary, and protect your rights and interests.

If you seek advice, connect with a lawyer through LegalMatch to ensure your concerfns are addressed efficiently.


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