Law Library Legal Dictionary – R (Page 2)
Legal Definitions – R (Page 2)
Reckless Endangerment Charges – A broad range of charges that are based on the intentional disregard of the safety of another person.
Recklessness – The mental state where a person knew or should have had knowledge that their conduct was likely to cause harm, yet acted without regard to the risk.
Reconsideration – A complete review of one’s disability claim by the Social Security Administration.
Record Sealing – The sealing of a person’s criminal record by the government. This is most commonly done with juvenile records.
Recording Acts – State statutes that establish the keeping of official county records to track public land ownership.
Recourse State – A state that allows mortgagers to pursue additional legal action in the event of a mortgage default situation, including filing a civil lawsuit against the defaulter after foreclosure.
Recreational Use Statutes – Statutes that are designed to encourage landowners to open their land to others for recreational uses, such as for skiing or fishing, without the landowner fearing liability for injuries that result from such recreational uses.
Reducing Child Support Payments – The process of lowering child support payments in order to reflect the change in the circumstances of the child and the parents.
Reformation of a Contract – The act of rewriting a portion of the contract so that it matches the parties’ intentions more closely.
Refugee – A person who is outside their country because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group.
Registered Sex Offender – A person who has been convicted of a sex crime under federal or state statutes and is subsequently required to submit their personal information in official records known as sex offender registries or sex offender databases. These databases are open to the public.
Registered Trademark – A visual image and/or arrangement of words that have been approved as an official trademark through the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Reinstatement of Orders in a Removal Hearing – The process of reinstating deportation orders after a deported alien has illegally re-entered the United States.
Reinstatement of US Citizenship – The process of reinstating a person’s US citizensip after they have given up their US citizenship in order to acquire the citizenship of another country.
Release Clause – An agreement between parties stating that one of the parties will forfeit their rights to a legal claim either before or after a civil suit is filed.
Release on Recognizance – The release of a criminal defendant from jail without requiring the criminal defendant to post bail. This is rarely done for serious criminal offenses.
Religious Discrimination – Discrimination enacted by either an employer of one person against another person based on that person’s religious beliefs.
Religious Organization’s Right to Discriminate – The right of a religious organization with 15 or more employees to discriminate against employees and potential employees on the basis of religion. This right is protected by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Religious Worker Visa – A visa that allows certain workers who belong to religious organizations to enter the U.S. temporarily. It is also known as an R-1 visa.
Relocation Benefits – Costs associated with moving to a new job that are incurred by a new employee and paid by an employer. This type of benefit is given at the employer’s discretion and is not required by law.
Removal from Sex Offender Registry – The process of removing a registered sex offender’s name from an official registry.
Removal of Executor – The process of removing a person from the position of executor of an estate.
Renouncing U.S. Citizenship – The process of giving up one’s American citizenship. A person usually does this in order to become a citizen of another country.
Rent to Own Transaction – A transaction in which a person rents expensive merchandise, until they have made enough payments to obtain ownership of the item.
Repeat Offender – A person who has been convicted for committing the same crime more than once. Many states have heavy mandatory minimums for those convicted of three or more felony crimes.
Repossession – The process by which creditors can reclaim property from debtors who have not kept up with their payments.
Required Disclosures When Selling Real Estate – Disclosures that a seller must make to any potential buyer with regard to the property that they are selling. Necessary disclosures include any defects, covenants, liens, or code violations.
Res Ipsa Loquitur in Medical Malpractice – A doctrine that refers to cases where the doctor’s treatment was so far below the appropriate standard of care that negligence is presumed.
Reservation of Rights Letter – A letter from an insurance company to a client that has been involved in a car accident. The letter states whether the insurance company will defend the client in court and how much it is willing to insure the client for.
Residential Lease Fixture – An item of personal property attached to the land or building being rented out that is regarded as an irremovable part of the real property. The item may be attached to the property by the tenant after they move in, or something that was previously installed by the property’s owner.
Residential Lease – An agreement between a landlord and a renter in which the landlord agrees to rent a residential property to the renter in exchange for "consideration" (something of value).
Residuary Estate – The part of a deceased person’s estate that remains once all the specific distributions, gifts, and bequests have been distributed to the named beneficiaries, and after all the person’s debts and claims have been satisfied.
Resisting Arrest – The use of any amount of physical force by a person to prevent a police officer from arresting, handcuffing, and/or taking them to jail.
Resolution of Necessity – The basis for a government agency’s decision to acquire property by eminent domain (i.e. the power to take private property for public use by a state).
Respondeat Superior – A legal doctrine that holds employers responsible for their employees’ actions.
Rest and Meal Breaks – Breaks that employers are required by law to give to their employees in some states.
Restaurant Employee Tips – Any money left by a restaurant customer for an employee in excess of the sum total owed for the goods or services they acquired. They are the property of the employee that has directly served the customer.
Restaurant Public Health Inspectors – Public health inspectors that are in charge of inspecting restaurants and ensuring that they are not violating the state’s health code.
Restitution – A type of remedy available in a civil case that is calculated based on the gains of the defendant and the loss to the plaintiff.
Restraining Order – A temporary court order issued to prohibit an individual from carrying out a particular action. It is also known as an "order of protection."
Restrictions in the Resale of Goods by Distributors – Restrictions that manufacturers place on a distributor’s ability to resell goods that it has bought from the manufacturers. These restrictions are generally viewed by courts as legal.
Resulting Trust – A trust that is created by an operation of law where an express trust fails but the intent of the settlor to create the trust is clear.
Retail Installment Contract – A contract that allows consumers to pay for a product or service over a period of time in fixed monthly installments.