Landlords have a right of entry, but this is balanced with your right to privacy as a tenant. Landlords are not allowed to go through your unit and belongings at will. Unless you permit them in advance, they must have a valid reason to enter your unit and give you proper notice before entering.
Other parties, such as health inspectors, may need to enter your unit, and you also have rights in those situations. The scope of your rights, as well as the limits on them, should be understood. Your tenancy may be terminated if you fail to cooperate with a valid entry.
When Can a Landlord Enter the Premises?
When you rent property, your landlord does not have the right to enter at any time for any reason. Rather, you as the tenant have a right of privacy that limits the landlord’s ability to enter the property you are renting. Most of the time, your landlord must give you notice before entering the premises.
When Does My Landlord Have the Right to Enter the Premises?
In very few situations, your landlord has the right to enter the property. Examples include:
- Emergencies: if there is an emergency, such as a fire or a water pipe burst, your landlord is usually entitled to enter the premises
- To make repairs: your landlord is allowed to enter the premises to make necessary repairs
- To show the property to prospective tenants or buyers: your landlord is allowed to enter the premises to show the property to people who are interested in buying or renting the property
Check-ups by your landlord on you or the rental property are not permitted.
A landlord can enter the unit without prior notice or permission if an emergency poses a risk of injuries or property damage. For example, they can act immediately in response to evidence of a fire, a flood, or a crime like domestic violence. If the tenant isn’t present, they usually leave a note explaining why they entered the property. The landlord may enter the property without notice if the tenant has abandoned it.
When repairs or improvements are needed, the landlord must give notice before entering the unit. A landlord who needs to make repairs must give you 24 hours of notice and a reasonable entry time unless this is not feasible or the tenant has agreed to less notice. If you are gone for at least a week, the landlord may be able to enter the unit without your permission to protect the property, but they cannot enter for a non-urgent issue. A lease or rental agreement may also allow a landlord to enter a unit for regular inspections after giving reasonable notice. State laws generally grant this right if the lease does not permit it.
When a landlord shows an apartment to prospective tenants or buyers, they also have a right of entry. Again, you must give reasonable notice, such as a 24-hour warning. You might be able to negotiate a rent reduction if the landlord wants to show the apartment on shorter notice.
Some states require 24 or 48 hours’ notice, whereas others simply require that notice be reasonable. You can look up recent cases in your state to see how this has been interpreted. Sometimes a written notice is required, but it is not always. If you have any preferences or needs regarding when the landlord can access the unit, you can reach a specific agreement with the landlord or include it in your lease.
To summarize, during an emergency, your landlord does not have to give you notice before entering. The landlord must provide you with notice before entering the property to make repairs or show it to others in most states. A 24-hour notice is generally required in many states. It is almost always necessary to give notice unless there is an emergency or your landlord has granted permission.
Entry by Inspectors and Others
You have a right to refuse entry to health and safety inspectors who come to your unit based on a neighbor’s request. The inspector may, however, simply contact your landlord, who can provide the notice or get a search warrant if there is a threat to public health or safety. This is also how random inspections work.
To ensure compliance, the inspector will usually be accompanied by a law enforcement officer or the landlord. Inspectors sometimes result in fees, especially if the inspector finds a violation. A landlord can raise the rent to cover this cost unless the fee is based on a violation the landlord committed.
The Fourth Amendment protects searches and seizures, including police rights to enter a tenant’s unit. A warrant is generally required unless there is an emergency, consent from an occupant, or a need to act quickly to arrest a criminal or preserve evidence of a crime. You should consult a criminal attorney if you have a question about this type of law.
No one other than inspectors or the police can enter your unit without your permission. In most cases, a landlord will contact a tenant to determine whether to allow entry.
What If I Leave for an Extended Time? Is My Landlord Entitled to Enter Then?
In many states, your landlord can enter during an extended absence. Generally, an extended absence lasts seven days or more. A landlord who is allowed to enter a property during an extended absence is typically only allowed to do so to maintain the property, check for damages, or make repairs.
What If I Give My Landlord Permission to Enter?
When you grant permission, the landlord is legally entitled to enter. You can include several restrictions when you grant permission. For instance, you might require a 48-hour notice.
Other Forms of Landlord Harassment
Your landlord can also disrupt your life in other ways besides entering your unit at unplanned and inconvenient times. Your landlord may give negative information about you to other parties, such as creditors or banks, or they may harass your employer about unpaid rent or other disputes. The landlord has the right to provide third parties with truthful information that they know, but they do not have the right to spread rumors about you. They may be liable for defamation.
Similarly, the landlord may be able to call you at work for an urgent matter occasionally. Still, they do not have the right to interfere with your job by discussing your situation with supervisors or coworkers.
Unfortunately, some landlord misconduct can rise to the level of a crime. If your landlord spies on you, harasses you sexually, threatens or tries to assault you, or damages your property, you should report them to the police and consult an attorney.
Do I Need a Lawyer?
It is not always easy to enforce your right to privacy as a tenant. First, you may want to resolve the situation amicably so that you can keep your tenancy. If your landlord does not respond to a friendly approach, you can send a letter outlining your grievances and explaining how the landlord is violating your rights.
According to your state, you should take different steps if your landlord violates your right to privacy. Your landlord’s behavior might constitute trespass in some states; you can collect damages in others. An experienced landlord-tenant attorney can help you determine if your rights have been violated and what steps you should take.