Every state has laws which outline how property is to be distributed between the parties in a divorce setting. The basic distinction between state laws is whether the state is a community property state or a non-community property state. Community property is any property that is accumulated during marriage.
In a state that follows community property rules, each spouse will have an equal share in community property, while separate property will be distributed in full to its legal owner. Non-community property states may have different rules regarding property that is collected by the couple during marriage.
Generally speaking, divorce orders are final and binding upon both of the parties. However, there are some instances where property issues may linger even after the divorce proceeding has been concluded. In such rare cases, each party may have different rights after the divorce ruling has been issued.
Some common situations involving property distribution after divorce include:
Finally, any instances of fraud or misconduct by one party can cause them to lose their property rights in connection with divorce. This includes attempting to hide property so that the court will not distribute the property. In fact, some states require a showing of fraud before they will consider altering a divorce decree.
Ownership of the house after the divorce will be determined by certain factors. The most important factor is child custody; the parent with custody of the children can usually retain custody of the house. If there are no dependent children, the house may be disturbed based on the property rules described above.
Remember that until the divorce is final, the house belongs to the owners listed in the title of the property. Assuming that both spouses are listed as owners, it is illegal for one spouse to lock the other spouse out of the house. Please call the police if a “lock-out” occurs.
Pet custody is becoming a more commonly litigated issue in family law. Pets were once viewed only as personal property and were thus given to the spouse who purchased the pet. Today, however, pets are almost on the same pedigree as children in divorce proceedings. Pets are still considered property, but spouses may share joint custody or be given visitation rights to see their former pets.
Ownership of the vehicle defers from state to state and may also defer from case to case. Some states may treat the car as community property to be divided. If the vehicles are community property, they may be awarded to the spouse who requires their use the most. For example, a spouse who needs to drive to work or drop the kids off at school may be awarded the vehicle.
In other states, the vehicle may be treated as separate property if the vehicle was indeed separate from the relationship. If one spouse has title over the vehicle and uses his or her own money for all the vehicle’s payments, including maintenance, that spouse will most likely retain control.
Many states will allow a spouse to retain possession and use of a vehicle provided that the spouse can provide he or she needs the vehicle. Ownership of the vehicle after the divorce, however, will be decided as a separate issue.
Ownership of the gift will depend on the nature of the item, the gift giver’s intention and the exclusive possession of the property in question. Rules will differ from state to state. Generally, a real gift will be the property of the spouse who receives them because the gift giver meant for the gift receiver to permanently own the gift.
However, a spouse may not abuse the legal doctrine of gifts to retain property that is actually community property. A wedding ring is a gift. Jewelry given on a birthday or anniversary is a gift. The bed which the spouses used to share is not a gift.
If you have any issues regarding the distribution of property in a divorce case, it is helpful to retain the services of a family lawyer. An experienced attorney will be able to tell you what your options are under the laws of your state. While most divorce decrees are generally considered to be final, there may be several alternative remedies available in your situation.
Last Modified: 09-28-2016 09:25 PM PDTLaw Library Disclaimer
We've helped more than 4 million clients find the right lawyer – for free. Present your case online in minutes. LegalMatch matches you to pre-screened lawyers in your city or county based on the specifics of your case. Within 24 hours experienced local lawyers review it and evaluate if you have a solid case. If so, attorneys respond with an offer to represent you that includes a full attorney profile with details on their fee structure, background, and ratings by other LegalMatch users so you can decide if they're the right lawyer for you.