Cyberbullying Laws by State

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 Is Cyberbullying Illegal?

Yes, cyberbullying is considered illegal in many jurisdictions. Cyberbullying involves the use of electronic communication technologies, such as social media, text messages, or email, to bully, intimidate, or harass others. Depending on the specific nature of the actions and the jurisdiction, cyberbullying can be prosecuted under various criminal laws, including harassment, threats, and stalking.

Here’s an overview of how cyberbullying could be prosecuted under harassment, threat, and stalking laws.

1. Harassment

Cyberbullying may constitute harassment if it involves repeatedly sending offensive, rude, and insulting messages. Harassment laws aim to protect individuals from persistent behavior that is meant to torment, wear down, or intimidate them. So, if the cyberbully persistently sends harmful messages online, they could be prosecuted under harassment laws.

For example, suppose an individual repeatedly sends insulting emails or messages to another person through social media platforms, causing the victim to feel harassed. In this case, the individual could be prosecuted for harassment.

2. Threats

If a cyberbully sends messages that contain threats to harm someone, this can be a more serious offense. Laws against making criminal threats prohibit individuals from threatening to kill or physically harm someone and that person is thereby placed in a state of reasonably sustained fear for his/her safety or for the safety of his/her immediate family, the threat is specific and unequivocal and you communicate the threat verbally, in writing, or via an electronically transmitted device.

For example, if a student sends a message to another student through social media threatening to physically harm them, the sender could potentially be prosecuted under laws against making criminal threats.

3. Stalking

Cyberbullying can also cross into the realm of stalking if the behavior involves a pattern of unwanted, obsessive attention by the bully towards the victim. This might involve repeated, unwanted messages, or public posts that obsess over or monitor the victim’s life.

For example, if a person continuously sends messages, comments excessively on a person’s social media, or posts information about the person’s daily activities against their will, this could constitute cyberstalking.

While the specific criminal penalties vary by jurisdiction and the seriousness of the offense, they may include fines, probation, community service, or even imprisonment. In particularly severe cases, such as those involving threats of violence or the sharing of explicit photos without consent, the penalties can be quite severe.

Do All States Have Cyberbullying Laws?

While not all states have specific cyberbullying laws, the majority do. Many states with cyberbullying laws have updated their existing bullying laws to include cyberbullying or enacted separate legislation specifically targeting this type of harassment. These laws typically require school districts to develop and implement policies to address and prevent cyberbullying among students.

Typical school district policies for addressing and preventing cyberbullying might include:

1. Clear Definitions

The policies usually start by defining what constitutes cyberbullying, which could include sending intimidating or threatening messages or images, spreading false rumors online, or publicly posting private information about another student.

2. Reporting Procedures

The policy would outline a clear procedure for students, teachers, and parents to report incidents of cyberbullying. This could include a designated staff member to handle such reports, or an anonymous reporting mechanism.

3. Investigation Protocols

Once a report is made, the policy would define the steps the school will take to investigate the incident. This may include interviewing the students involved, reviewing any relevant digital content, and determining the severity and impact of the incident.

4. Consequences

The policy should clearly state the consequences for students who engage in cyberbullying. This could range from loss of privileges (like participation in extracurricular activities), to suspension or expulsion in severe cases. The school might also refer the matter to law enforcement if the cyberbullying involves criminal behavior.

5. Education and Prevention

Many policies also include provisions for educating students about the harm caused by cyberbullying and ways to prevent it. This could involve digital citizenship classes, seminars for parents, and providing resources for students who are being bullied.

6. Support Services

Schools often outline in their policies the support services available to victims of cyberbullying, such as counseling, academic support (like tutoring or extra time on assignments), and in severe cases, options for transferring to a different school within the district.

In addition to state laws, some local jurisdictions also have their own policies or ordinances related to cyberbullying. And even in states without specific cyberbullying laws, cyberbullying actions may still be prosecuted under other state or federal laws, such as those related to harassment or threats.

What If the Parent Is Not Aware of the Bullying?

Even if a parent or guardian is not aware of the bullying, the school district and other responsible entities may still be held accountable. School districts have a responsibility to provide a safe learning environment for their students. If they fail to prevent or appropriately respond to bullying, they may be held liable in a civil case.

Parents and students may be able to bring a civil case against the school district for damages resulting from the bullying, such as emotional distress, medical expenses, or costs associated with transferring to a new school. The specific circumstances under which a school can be held liable vary, so it’s important to consult with a personal injury attorney or another legal professional to understand your rights and options.

1. Document the Bullying

The first step in a civil case is to document the bullying incidents. This could involve saving any harmful or threatening messages, emails, or social media posts. Additionally, any related medical records, psychological evaluations, or records of academic performance could also serve as evidence.

2. Report the Bullying to School Officials

Parents or guardians should report the bullying incidents to school officials. It’s important to provide as much detail as possible and to keep a record of these communications.

3. Consult with an Attorney

Bringing a lawsuit against a school district can be complex due to specific legal procedures and immunity laws that can protect school districts from certain types of lawsuits. A personal injury attorney or a lawyer practicing in education law can help guide you through this process.

Once a lawsuit is filed, the goal is to recover damages for the harm suffered as a result of the bullying.

Here are some examples of how damages may be calculated for each type of harm:

  • Emotional Distress: Emotional distress damages compensate the victim for the psychological impact of the bullying. This might include feelings of humiliation, anxiety, and depression. To prove emotional distress, you may need testimony from a psychologist or other mental health professional who has treated the victim.
  • Medical Expenses: If the bullying resulted in physical harm that required medical treatment, you could seek to recover the costs of that treatment. This might include the costs of visiting a doctor, any necessary medical procedures or therapy, and medication.
  • Costs Associated with Transferring to a New School: If the bullying was so severe that the victim had to transfer to a new school, you might be able to recover the associated costs. This could include application fees, transportation costs, and any increase in tuition.

The specific amount of damages awarded will depend on the specifics of the case and the extent of the harm suffered. It’s important to consult with an attorney to fully understand your potential for recovery and how best to present your case.

When Should I Consult an Attorney?

If your child has been a victim of cyberbullying and you believe the school district or other parties failed to take appropriate action, it would be advisable to consult an attorney. You might have grounds for a civil case seeking compensation for damages.

An attorney can help you understand the laws in your state, advise on the best course of action, and represent you in any legal proceedings. They can also help you navigate the complex process of filing a lawsuit against a school district, which can involve specific procedures and deadlines that must be followed.

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