The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is the main source of law that governs searches, seizures, and their related legal procedures in the United States. The Fourth Amendment was originally created to protect U.S. citizens from law enforcement officers who were conducting searches and/or seizures in an unreasonable manner. The law still applies as it was intended in present day.
For example, a law enforcement officer may not stop or pull over the driver of a motor vehicle if the officer does not have reasonable suspicion that a crime is being committed.
On the other hand, the Supreme Court of the United States has ruled that law enforcement officers are legally permitted to stop a vehicle for a brief period without reasonable suspicion if the act is associated with a sobriety checkpoint program. Such programs are used to ensure safety on roadways and to protect drivers, passengers, and/or pedestrians from drunk drivers.
According to the ruling, police may briefly stop a motorist to inspect for signs of intoxication, but must do so in a way that is considered to be both reasonable in duration and nondiscriminatory. However, the police may not search a driver’s vehicle at a sobriety checkpoint unless they have probable cause to conduct a search or the driver provides consent.
In sum, law enforcement officers are generally only allowed to stop a vehicle for the following reasons under the law:
- If the police have reasonable suspicion that the driver of a motor vehicle is partaking in criminal activities or wrongdoings.
- If the vehicle stop is part of a sobriety checkpoint program and is conducted:
- In a nondiscriminatory manner, and
- Lasts for a reasonable duration.
- If the police have probable cause to believe that a driver has violated a vehicle or traffic law.
Finally, it is important to note that the last reason provided in the above list may not be considered a lawful reason to stop a vehicle in every state. The reason for this is because each state has adopted its own laws on the subject and thus these laws tend to vary widely from one another.
Therefore, it is strongly recommended that you hire a local criminal defense lawyer to defend and protect your legal rights in court if you believe that a police officer illegally stopped your vehicle, which subsequently led to your arrest.
Are Random Vehicle Stops Allowed Under the Constitution?
In general, the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that the public has a right to be free from unreasonable seizures and searches. In applying these principles to a situation that involves the stop of a motor vehicle, the Fourth Amendment considers even a vehicle stop of short duration to be a seizure.
Accordingly, law enforcement officers cannot stop or pull over a motor vehicle unless the reason for the stop is supported by either reasonable suspicion or probable cause that a crime is being committed by the driver or someone within the vehicle (such as another passenger).
What Can Give the Police Reasonable Suspicion?
In general, the law states that if a law enforcement officer has enough cause to stop a vehicle for a short duration, then this may be sufficient to provide the type of evidence that would be necessary to support an officer’s objective belief that there was reasonable suspicion that the driver was engaged in a crime, Alternatively it can support a claim that there was probable cause that the driver violated a law. In turn, this would allow the police to stop the vehicle.
In other words, if a law enforcement officer reasonably suspects that a driver has committed a traffic law violation, then the officer would have reasonable suspicion to briefly pull over their motor vehicle. In doing so, the office will be permitted to ask the driver about the possible traffic violation. The officer may also inquire about whether the driver is intoxicated if they have reasonable suspicion that it might be true.
Again, the police are legally allowed to stop or seize a motor vehicle in motion if it is based on reasonable suspicion. The stop must be brief and can include a seizure of not only the driver of the motor vehicle, but also any of its passengers. The timing of a motor vehicle stop can be for as long as would be considered reasonably necessary for a law enforcement officer to confirm or disprove their initial reasonable suspicions.
However, the stop should not go on longer than necessary. If there does not seem to be evidence of a crime or whatever incident led to the officer’s reasonable suspicion in the first place, then the stop must be terminated and the driver and/or passengers released to continue on with their business.
In addition, the police are not lawfully permitted to stop or pull over a vehicle if no probable cause or reasonable suspicion exists. For instance, a law enforcement officer cannot simply stop a vehicle on a whim or because they felt like it.
A mere hunch, guess, or possibility of there being a crime committed also will not provide the type of justification needed to conduct a motor vehicle stop. Reasonable suspicion or probable cause must exist at the time the stop is made.
One example is a case wherein the police received an unsubstantiated, anonymous tip that did not provide the kind of specific information to support an objective belief of reasonable suspicion. The police acted on the tip without gathering any further evidence and arrested the individual whom the tip concerned.
In the end, the judge ruled for the defendant because the police did not have enough evidence to perform a search or seizure based solely on an unproven tip. The police also were not justified in carrying out the search and seizure since they neither had reasonable belief nor probable cause to do so. Thus, their actions were a violation of the defendant’s constitutional rights.
Can the Police Conduct a Vehicle Stop Without Reasonable Suspicion?
There are a few different scenarios in which the police may be able to conduct a vehicle stop without first having probable cause or reasonable suspicion to do so. Although the circumstances under which these conditions may apply are very narrow, they do still exist.
For instance, the law states that the police may conduct a vehicle stop without reasonable suspicion when there is a special need beyond that of ordinary law enforcement requirements that would justify the stop or seizure of the motor vehicle. An example of the type of special need that the law may be referring to is when law enforcement is in a position that requires them to protect the safety of the general public, such as from drunk drivers.
In continuing with this example of a special need, police may justify the stop of a motor vehicle at a sobriety checkpoint to detect and prevent drunk driving accidents. As previously mentioned, seizing a motor vehicle as part of a sobriety checkpoint program is considered to be a lawful reason under the Fourth Amendment, so long as the stop is brief and conducted in a nondiscriminatory manner.
Given the parameters of a stop that is part of a sobriety checkpoint program, the Fourth Amendment does not deem such stops to be a constitutional violation since they are not considered to be random or left up to the discretion of an individual law officer’s subjective opinion.
In addition, these stops are also not carried out to discriminate against certain persons or vehicles, but rather for the purposes of keeping the public safe and preventing drunk-driving incidents. Thus, the special need in this situation is said to outweigh the minimal invasion of a driver’s privacy and freedom under the Fourth Amendment.
It should be noted, however, that states may also impose their own laws and restrictions on sobriety checkpoint programs. In fact, there are a handful of states that have invalidated such checkpoints under their own state laws or constitutions. Therefore, it is crucial that an individual know their legal rights with respect to vehicle seizures and searches under both the U.S. Constitution as well as the provisions provided in the constitution for their home state.
Do I Need a Lawyer If My Vehicle was Stopped and Searched?
If a law enforcement officer stopped and searched your vehicle, which then led to you being arrested, then it may be in your best interest to contact a local traffic violation lawyer as soon as possible. An experienced criminal defense lawyer can advise you of your rights as a criminal defendant under the laws in your state and can recommend different options as to how you should proceed with your case.
Your lawyer can perform legal research to find out if there are any defenses that you can assert against the charges. Your lawyer can also use the findings from their legal research to help you build a solid defensive argument for your case. In addition, your lawyer can provide legal representation at any criminal court proceedings related to your matter as well as at any meetings with the prosecutor to negotiate a plea deal.
Finally, if you are convicted on the charges that you were arrested for, your lawyer can assist you in appealing the decision or in petitioning the court for an alternative method of punishment, such as community service or house arrest. Your lawyer will also be able to answer any questions you may have about your case and can aid you in navigating the criminal justice system every step of the way.