Many people think murder is any killing of another person. Under the law, though, murder must involve:
In order to be convicted of common law murder, the killing must require malice aforethought. Also known simply as malice, it does not mean that the defendant acted out of hate or spite toward the intended victim. Rather, malice aforethought exists when:
A defendant can be convicted of murder even if he or she did not intend to commit a killing, but rather was involved in a act or behaved in a way that had a high risk of death to human life. If that act result in a death of another, defendant could be liable for murder.
Many states have statutory degrees for murder. The rules vary from state to state as to what circumstances make an intentional killing either first degree or second-degree murder, but the following circumstances are factored:
Manslaughter is defined as the killing of another human being without malicious intent. However, states will often have different distinctions between the degrees of murder and manslaughter.
This means that a second degree murder in one state may be a voluntary manslaughter in another. California, for example, considers a killing through the heat of passion as manslaughter rather than murder.
The main difference between murder and manslaughter depends on the defendant’s state of mind. Typically, murder requires that the killing be done with malice aforethought, premeditation, and deliberation. However, both forms of homicide may count as culpable homicide depending on the circumstances.
The best way to defeat a murder charge is to negate one of the elements of murder: act and intent. Obviously, if a defendant can prove that there is no evidence he committed the act, then he would be clear of any murder or manslaughter charges.
If, however, the defendant is linked to the act, then it may still be possible to reduce a murder charge by proving that there was no intent. Lowering the crime would reduce the sentence. A list of possible defenses to reduce the intent element can be found here.
The penalty for murder will differ based upon the degree and from state to state. Murder sentencing is subject to “enhancements” which may increase or decrease the punishment. Murder with a deadly weapon, for example, can increase the punishment while youth may work in the defendant’s favor.
In general, first degree murder sentencing ranges from death to life imprisonment without parole.
Second degree murder entails imprisonment with parole. The exact number of years will depend on the state, the judge and any enhancements included.
It is important to note that different states have different systems of gradation each with its own subtleties. Immediately consult a criminal defense lawyer familiar with your particular state's criminal laws regarding your rights and defenses.
Contact the police immediately. If there is sufficient evidence, the police will forward the case to the District Attorney's office to prosecute the suspect who murdered the person. If you are interested in bringing a civil suit against the person, learn more at Wrongful Death.
Last Modified: 11-09-2017 12:13 AM PSTLaw Library Disclaimer
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