Normally, if you take the belongings of another, you are guilty of conversion and may have to give the belongings back to the original owner or or repay the owner for the value of those goods. There are, however, some exceptions to this general rule, meaning that in some cases you may be able to gain title to someone else's belongings. These exceptions are accession and confusion.
Accession of goods may occur in two different ways:
In some jurisdictions, a distinction will be made between whether or not you knowingly took the belongings of another. This may mean that you will only be able to obtain title to a finished product where you innocently took someone else's property. If you knew that it belonged to the other person to begin with, you will not be able to obtain title, no matter how impressive your improvement of the article.
Confusion allows you to acquire title to property that has been inseparably intermingled with your own belongings in such a way that it is impossible to determine which party involved in the claim is the rightful owner. Confusion generally only applies when it is too difficult to separate out goods by their owners or where collection of goods as a whole creates something new, making each person involved a partial owner of the whole, regardless of whose fault it is that the goods became so mixed up in the first place.
The doctrines of accession and confusion are not accepted by all states. Some states, like California, have adopted a different policy to protect both parties--the original owner and the innocent improver, by allowing the original owner to reclaim his property, regardless of how improved it might be, as long as he reimburses the second party for their labor in making the improvements.
If you have been accused of, or are being sued for, conversion of someone else's property, and you believe that an accession or confusion has really occurred, an experienced property lawyer will be able to assist you with any claims that may be brought against you.
Last Modified: 11-13-2013 11:02 AM PSTLaw Library Disclaimer
We've helped more than 4 million clients find the right lawyer – for free. Present your case online in minutes. LegalMatch matches you to pre-screened lawyers in your city or county based on the specifics of your case. Within 24 hours experienced local lawyers review it and evaluate if you have a solid case. If so, attorneys respond with an offer to represent you that includes a full attorney profile with details on their fee structure, background, and ratings by other LegalMatch users so you can decide if they're the right lawyer for you.