Legal Dictionary - N

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Legal Definitions - N

Name Change – The process for legally changing one’s name, which predominantly consists of filing paperwork with various government agencies and providing notice. See also: Child Name Change Lawyers, Name Changes After Marriage, California Name Equality Act

National Social Security Appeals Council – The last stage in the administrative appeals process for Social Security hearings.

National Stolen Property Act – A federal law that criminalizes the transport, receipt or sale of stolen property across state lines or in foreign commerce.

Naturalization – The process by which U.S. citizenship is granted to a foreign citizen or national after he or she fulfills the requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).

NBA Free Agency – The time period when a professional basketball player can freely seek out employment and contracts with other professional teams.

Negative Easement – A landowner’s obligation to not use or build on land in specified ways.

Negligence – The failure to use the amount of care that an ordinary person would provide under similarly situated circumstances. See also: Gross Negligence, Negligence in a Car Accident, Negligence Evidence

Negligence Per Se Laws – A category of offenses involving the violation of a statute that is designed to protect the public from a specific type of harm.

Negligent Entrustment – A situation where the owner of a motor vehicle entrusts it to someone the owner knows to be incapable of using the vehicle properly, and a third party is injured as a result.

Negligent Misrepresentation – Misrepresentation where the person did not directly lie, but they made a representation about something while having no reasonable grounds for believing it to be true.

Negligent Supervision Laws – Laws that govern the liability of adults who have failed to exercise their duty of care when monitoring children.

Neighbor Water Damage Disputes – Disputes arising from water damage that was caused by a neighbor’s actions or non-actions.

Net Lease – A lease where the tenant has primary control of the premises and agrees to be responsible for some or all of the operating expenses of the premises, such as utilities, repairs, insurance, or taxes.

Newborns' and Mothers' Health Protection Act – Federal law that guarantees a woman and her newborn baby the right to stay in the hospital for at least 48 hours after a vaginal delivery or 96 hours after a C-section delivery.

Nightclub/Bouncer Liability – The liability that a bouncer faces when dealing with nightclub patrons and the secondary and primary liability that the nightclub faces as the employer of the bouncer.

No Child Left Behind Act – The latest revision of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), which was enacted in 1965 to provide guidance and funds to K-12 schools.

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act – Federal law that focuses primarily on illegal distribution of intellectual property over the Internet.

No Fault Auto Insurance – Automobile insurance that pays medical expenses for the driver and his family, the passengers in driver’s vehicle, and any pedestrians the driver may injure in an accident. This type of automobile insurance is mandatory in most states.

Noise Ordinances – Local laws that prohibit excessive and unnecessary noise. They usually only prohibit noise during specified time periods, such as between the hours of 10:00 pm and 7:00 am on weekdays.

Nominal Damages – Damages that are awarded in legal cases where the plaintiff has been injured but did not incur any real-world economic or financial losses. They are not intended to compensate the victim but rather are awarded to vindicate a plaintiff’s rights and to acknowledge that they have been wronged.

Non Profit Bylaws – The guidelines and instructions for a non-profit organization, which informs the non-profit of how it can conduct their affairs.

Non-Binding Arbitration – Arbitration in which discussions do not carry any legal precedence, and the parties are not bound by law to follow the results.

Non-Compete Covenant – A clause in a contract that forbids an employee to leave his job to work for the employer’s competitor.

Non-Custodial Parent Rights – The rights that a parent has with regard to their child, such as visitation rights, when the parent does not have the majority of custody of their child.

Non-Economic DamagesDamages that cover losses that are not readily quantifiable, and often include losses of a non-monetary nature.

Non-Immigrant Visa – A type of temporary visa issued to foreign nationals seeking to visit the U.S. for a limited amount of time.

Non-Judicial Foreclosure – A foreclosure that does not require or involve the court’s intervention. In this type of foreclosure closure, the lender is allowed to sell the borrower’s property in order to recover any losses, such as missed mortgage payments.

Non-Marital Agreement – A contract that sets up property rights for unmarried couples. This type of contract gives unmarried couples similar rules governing property rights that married couples establish in premarital agreements.

Non-Parent Child Custody – Custody of a child that is awarded to a person who is not the biological parent of the child.

Non-Resident Alien – A foreign national who is in the United States, but is not subject to certain U.S. taxes because they are not considered residents.

Non-Recourse Loan – A type of loan that prevents a creditor from going after any of the debtor’s property other than the property used for collateral in satisfying any deficiency on the loan.

Nondisclosure Agreement (NDA) – An agreement between two parties in which both parties promise not to reveal any confidential information that the other is giving to them during the transaction.

Nonimmigrant Visa Extension – An extension of a visa beyond the original expiration of the visa so that a foreign citizen may stay in the United States for a longer period.

Nonprofit Corporation – A corporation that exists to fulfill a nonmonetary purpose.

Notice Statutes – Statutes that invalidate a buyer's property ownership if she has notice that another owner has purchased the property from the same seller prior to her purchase.

Notice to Appear – A type of summons that must be sent to any person who will be under review for a removal hearing to notify them as to when and where the hearing will take place.

Novation – A contract that substitutes one party to a contract for a party who was not in the original contract.

Nuisance – The unreasonable or unlawful use of property in a way that causes damage to others by preventing them from enjoying or using their own property in their intended way.

Nursing Home Abuse – Abuse enacted by nursing home employees against elderly patients residing in nursing homes.

Nursing Home Liability – The liability a nursing home faces if it fails in its duty to exercise reasonable care to prevent injury to its patients.

Nursing Home Reform Act – Federal law that is aimed at ensuring that nursing home residents receive quality care, provide certain services and establish a Residents' Bill of Rights.

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Last Modified: 05-09-2016 02:06 PM PDT

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